Sit the casualty down, head slightly dipped forward and ask them to pinch below the bridge of the nose for 10 mins. Give them a bowl to dribble in to. If still bleeding after 10 mins, ask them to pinch for another 10 mins. Slowly release. If they have had a nose bleed longer than half an hour, ring 999.

Make the area around them safe so they are less likely to injure themselves. Do not restrain them or put anything in their mouth. If you are able to, try to protect the head. Time the seizure to see how long it lasts for. Cover the casualty with a blanket/jacket to preserve their modesty as sometimes they may become incontinent. Dial 999 if are concerns over the casualties airways/ breathing, if they injure themselves, if it is their first seizure or if you are concerned, or if the seizure lasts longer than 4-5 mins (sometimes you may wish to dial 999 before this)

We now call burns superficial, partial thickness and full thickness.

The most common area to become fractured during C.P.R is actually the sternum. If you think you may have fractured the casualty’s ribs/sternum just stop, make sure your hands are in the centre of the chest and carry on as it’s more important there is oxygenated blood circulating than the ribs/sternum are intact.

The casualty may vomit as air may become forced in to the stomach. In which case you need to turn them on to their side towards you so the vomit can drain out and you can see the airways. Then put them back on the back and re check airways and breathing.

If you are unable or unwilling to give rescue breaths, you can give chest compression only C.P.R. Chest compression only C.P.R is effective for a limited period only and is not recommended as standard management for C.P.R.